viernes, 27 de julio de 2007

PANORAMA ACTUAL DE LA REMUNERACIÓN EJECUTIVA EN AMÉRICA LATINA

Una mirada a 19 países en un informe elaborado por Mercer.


El Atlas de Recursos Humanos de América Latina 2007, realizado por Mercer Human Resource Consulting, firma global de consultoría en RH, es un libro con información precisa de 19 países que provee elementos de análisis acerca de su remuneración ejecutiva y situación salarial, en función del comportamiento de sus economías internas.


De acuerdo a la Comisión Económica de Naciones Unidas para América Latina y El Caribe (ECLAC por sus siglas en inglés United Economic Comission for Latin America and the Caribbean), el 2007 es el cuarto año consecutivo en que Latinoamérica muestra índices de crecimiento del 4%, cuando el promedio anual en la región entre 1980 y 2002 fue del 2.2%. Un crecimiento que sin embargo, tiende a disminuir con respecto a otras regiones del mundo, también en desarrollo.

El informe de Mercer, con un especial enfoque en las tendencias de la remuneración, orienta la mirada hacia algunos de los desafíos que enfrentan las empresas de cara a su fuerza de trabajo a nivel ejecutivo y analiza las prácticas de pago en la región. Al presentar un comparativo del salario en Latinoamérica, evalúa la brecha que existe entre el pago a ejecutivos y otros niveles profesionales, tomando en consideración el costo de vida, las diferencias en el poder de compra, así como el análisis y la interpretación de las tendencias económicas de cada país.

Comparación y contrastes de la Remuneración en América Latina En el informe se establece una comparación del pago total (base salarial más el pago garantizado y variable) de cinco niveles: Ejecutivo (Vicepresidentes Senior y niveles superiores), Gerencia Senior, Gerencia, Supervisor y Profesional.

Chile, México, Brasil, Perú y Puerto Rico aparecen como los países mejor remunerados en esta encuesta. Un ejemplo es el nivel Ejecutivo (Vicepresidentes Senior y niveles superiores), cuya remuneración total en Brasil alcanza los USD$ 962.728, mientras que el mismo nivel en México recibe USD$ 803.025.

Puerto Rico ostenta el más alto ranking en casi todos los niveles, con excepción de los niveles Ejecutivo y Gerencia Senior. En éste último nivel, Argentina, Honduras, Nicaragua, Bolivia y Paraguay ocupan los lugares más bajos de la tabla. En el caso del nivel de Gerencia, Argentina y Venezuela se sitúan entre los países de menor remuneración, mientras Puerto Rico, Chile y México lideran la lista.

Ejecutivo
Rango País Remuneración total US$
1 Brasil 962.728
2 México 803.025
Nota: El tipo de cambio utilizado fue el vigente en noviembre de 2006.


Gerencia Senior

Rango País Remuneración total US$
1 Chile 227.815
2 Perú 207.435
3 Brasil 190.642
4 México 188.608
15 Argentina 117.993
16 Honduras 111.244
17 Nicaragua 107.275
18 Bolivia 93.485
19 Paraguay 86.494

Nota: El tipo de cambio utilizado fue el vigente en noviembre de 2006.

Profesional
Rango País Remuneración total US$
1 Puerto Rico 44.385
2 Chile 24.017
3 México 20.928
4 Perú 20.855
12 Argentina 13.912
16 Costa Rica 11.910
17 Nicaragua 10.175
18 Bolivia 10.053
19 Paraguay 10.014

Nota: El tipo de cambio utilizado fue el vigente en noviembre de 2006.


Análisis de Salarios

Otro aspecto que se muestra en el Atlas de Recursos Humanos 2007, tiene que ver con las diferencias en salarios entre niveles ejecutivos y administrativos.

En Nicaragua un ejecutivo puede ganar un salario 20 veces más alto que un puesto administrativo, mientras que un ejecutivo en Puerto Rico gana en promedio cinco veces más que una posición operativa. Generalmente esta diferencia se acentúa en aquellos países donde la remuneración es menor y sucede a la inversa en los países con una mejor paga, donde la diferencia entre niveles no es tan amplia. Cabe mencionar que los países con uniones sindicales sólidas alcanzan condiciones salariales y de calidad de vida más altas para los de menor nivel.

Las métricas salariales fueron extraídas de la Encuesta de Remuneración Total 2006 elaborada por Mercer, donde se compilaron datos sobre remuneración a través de un proceso estandarizado de encuesta a nivel global. Los tipos de cambio son vigentes al día 30 de noviembre de 2006.

Costo de Vida
El estudio de Costo de Vida de Mercer captura el precio de una canasta de bienes y servicios en 250 ciudades alrededor del mundo. Los resultados derivan de la comparación de precios de la misma canasta en distintos lugares, la cual está integrada por 200 productos representativos de los patrones de compra de los ejecutivos.


Comparativo internacional del poder adquisitivo

Para evaluar el poder adquisitivo de los ejecutivos, en este informe se alineó el ingreso salarial bruto de cada empleado de rango medio, con el costo de vida calculado considerando la Encuesta de Costo de Vida 2006 relativo a su país, asumiendo que todos los empleados alrededor del mundo tienden a consumir una misma canasta de bienes y servicios. Este planteamiento arrojó que son los gerentes en Chile, Venezuela y Perú quienes tienen el mayor poder de compra en la región, tal y como se puede apreciar en la tabla a continuación.

Gerencia
Rango País Proporción del poder adquisitivo
1 Chile 1,6
2 Venezuela 1,5
3 Perú 1,3
4 México 1,2
5 Colombia 1,2
6 Panamá 1,0

Nota: El poder adquisitivo se determinó tomando en consideración la Encuesta de Costo de Vida emitida en 2006.


El documento hace una rápida revisión de cada uno de los principales países que conforman a la región, mostrando un panorama económico, político y de tendencias en Recursos Humanos que permite un análisis más detallado de los esquemas de remuneración en cada uno de ellos y permite establecer un marco contextual fácil de aprovechar por los profesionales de la función de Recursos Humanos.

"Para hacer una comparación más exacta en relación con el poder adquisitivo de los ejecutivos, es necesario incluir los efectos de las tasas impositivas y contribuciones del empleado a la seguridad social en cada país, a fin de reflejar de manera adecuada lo que estos finalmente se llevan en el bolsillo. Por ejemplo, en Chile los pagos a la seguridad social los realiza directamente el empleado, lo que ayuda a explicar que este país se encuentre en los lugares más altos de las clasificaciones de sueldos ejecutivos en la región", indicó Alberto Mondelli, Director de Capital Humano de Mercer para América Latina.


Fuente:
Mercer Human Resource Consulting - Mercado - http://www.mercado.com.ar/

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